After our blue planet Earth from the Sun, The Mars is the fourth planet. It is known since historic times as the "Red Planet" because of its coloration, which stimulate much interest. His name is the god of war according to the Greco-Roman mythology.
Mars is one of the planets most fascinated us throughout history, the possibility that harbored life due to their similarities with our planet, has led to weave thousands of stories about and a great hope of finding microscopic life today, in these our days in which technology allows us to almost touch this dream with your hands.
The tendency of its alliance from vertical to the plane of its orbit cause Mars in following seasons, which last only about two times that of Earth, as the extraterrestrial year lasts almost double the ground. The strangeness of the orbit makes Perihelion distances and influence aphelia seasons. The aphelion coincides with the autumn for the Southern Hemisphere, which causes the Southern Hemisphere winter is longer and colder, while the summer is shorter and warmer than in the Northern Hemisphere. Hence, for a century the south polar cap has disappeared twice, while the north polar cap is not gone even once. In the spring of Mars, the caps are surrounded by a dark border of the wetting of the ground product. It moves progressively toward the Ecuador at 30 to 40 km / day.
It distingue grayish brown spots on an orange background general. The dark spots have been called seas, lakes, etc.., the orange, continents or deserts. Today they are designated with the name of albino details and do not correspond, in general, with details observed from the probes that have been in the vicinity of Mars.
The photographs from space probes that have surrounded or down on Mars show a variety of terrain: Great Plains with and without craters, volcanic mountains and deep canyons and chaotic terrain. The craters are from small diameters (0.5 km and less) to 500 km in diameter. In the region of Hellas, by contrast, almost no craters are observed. Hellas is a huge depression about 1700 km in diameter. Not far from Lake Typhoon begins a rift over 2000 km in length, width and depth of 120 km to 6 km.
The most significant detail in the dark is the region of Sorties Major. The bright regions can be called deserts, because they are composed of porous sand rust. There are more than a dozen volcanic mountains of doubt. The highest of them is Mount Olympus, which is the highest mountain in the Solar System. It has a diameter of 500 km at its base and a height of about 27 km. Some craters show signs of recent activity and have petrified lava flows on its slopes. Another detail of Martian relief is winding fissures or cracks that resemble the beds of ancient rivers. But the most conspicuous detail of the surface are the polar caps continuously changing its contours with the seasons, as they are formed by frozen CO2 and water also believed. In the region of descent of a spacecraft analyzed the composition of the soil, which happened to be composed of iron and silicon, calcium, aluminum and titanium. The high iron content (12 to 16%) of the Martian soil is what gives it its reddish color.
By the gradual failing of the starlight hidden when Mars, darkening the disc of the planet, presence of clouds and directly shown in the photographs spectroscopy. The atmosphere is composed of 95% CO2, 2.7% N2, 1.6% of AR, 0.03% O 2 and <0.05% water. The ozone content (per unit area of the planet) is 1000 times lower than in the Earth's ozone layer, so this layer, which lies about 40 km in height, does not block solar UV radiation, and this comes to the planet's surface. Clouds can be presented in three colors: white, yellow and blue. There are clouds that reach to 2000 km. The white clouds are composed apparently of ice crystals, the yellow ones are hairy nature and arise as a result of dust storms consist of particles about 1 micron. The scattering of light with traces of dust gives the Martian sky a salmon color. In the atmosphere are produced winds up to 120 m / s that are responsible for the existence of sand dunes in deserts. There is also a global circulation of the atmosphere. Mars has an ionosphere which has its largest electron density up to approximately 130 kilometers.
Since the atmosphere is very transparent, the greenhouse effect is very small and it is expected that at night the temperature drops considerably. This is helped by the low thermal conductivity of the Martian soil. The average surface temperature is 220 K, but there is a dependence on latitude, so that in the tropics is greater (272K). Apparently, this temperature measurement is greater than can occur on Mars. In this same place in the morning was measured at a temperature of only 150 K. The temperature in the polar caps is about 150 K, and in the stratosphere is maintained throughout the day between 170 and 180 k. The in situ experiments to discover a way of life so far have proved unsuccessful.
Its magnetic field is very weak opposite polarity to the Earth and intensity magnetic Ecuador level with the surface of the Earth 0002.
It has two satellites in order of distance from the planet are Phobias and Daimios.
Temperature and Pressure:
The average recorded temperature on Mars is -63 ° C (-81 ° F) with a maximum temperature of 20 ° C (68 ° F) and a minimum of -140 ° C (-220 ° F). Barometric pressure varies each of the landing points every six months. Carbon dioxide, the major component of the atmosphere, freezes to form an immense polar cap, alternately in each of the poles. Carbon dioxide forms a thick layer of snow and then evaporates again with the arrival of spring in each hemisphere. When the southern cap was largest, the mean daily pressure observed by Viking Lander 1 was as low as 6.8 mill bars; at other times of the year rose high as 9.0 mill bars. The pressures at the Viking Lander 2 site were 7.3 and 10.8 mill bars. In comparison, the average pressure of the Earth is 1000 mill bars.
Mass (kg): 6.421e +23
Mass (Earth = 1): 1.0745e-01
Equatorial radius (km): 3397.2
Equatorial radius (Earth = 1): 5.3264e-01
Mean density (gm / cm ^ 3): 3.94
indicate distance from the Sun (km) 227,940,000 Mean distance from the Sun (Earth = 1) : 1.5237 Rotational period (hours): 24.6229 Orbital period (days) : 686.98 Mean orbital velocity (km / sec) 24.13 Orbital eccentricity: 0.0934 Tilt of axis (degrees) : 25.19 Orbital inclination (degrees): 1,850 Ecuador surface gravity (m / sec ^ 2): 3.72 Escape velocity in Ecuador (km / sec) 05.02 Visual geometric albedo : 0.15 Magnitude (Vo ): -2.01 minimum surface temperature : -140 ° C average surface temperature : -63 ° C Maximum surface temperature: 20 ° C Atmospheric pressure (bars): 0,007
Atmospheric composition Carbon Dioxide (C02)
95.32% Nitrogen (N2) 2.7% Argon (Ar) 1.6%
Oxygen (O2) 0.13%
Carbon Monoxide (CO) 0.07%
Water (H2O) 0.03%
Neon (Ne) 0.00025%
Krypton (Kr) 0.00003%
Xenon (Xe) 0.000008%
Ozone (O3) 0.000003%