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Saturday, July 13, 2013

6 amazing facts about black holes

This is what happens when the universe divides by zero. They arise when the reality shows a critical error: too much material in one place the power of its own gravity and spoils the substance, and the place in which it is located. Usually gravity in our universe is playing the role of a caring older brother who always preterit for younger scattered toys. But in the case of black holes, gravity becomes downright Al Capone, which first convened a meeting the entire fundamental laws of life, and then arranges a real meat grinder with their participation. 

Black holes are not only destroying the matter, they destroy the quantum laws that shape this matter, compressing it to a state of miserable crumbs until she ceases to exist too. In short, the black holes are simply ignoring reality. Although most people consider them a kind of "techs Space" is infinitely distant from the reality show. We have gathered the facts that will relieve you of that misconception.

01. It is the brightest object in the sky everyone knows that even light cannot escape the black hole surface, and because of this they imagine something like an open space in the middle of a manhole. Meanwhile, the "black hole" - it's just a figurative name; in fact they are often the brightest celestial objects. We forget that in addition to the event horizon, beyond which light cannot really break out, there is also the rest of the universe, and that the spinning black hole swallows matter around, spinning stuff, like a whirlpool. When the gas cloud "falls" into a black hole, matter is compressed pressure dramatically decreases in the volume and heating from friction. And, like a meteor in the atmosphere, the gas around the black hole begins to naturally burn. Moreover, it is heating up even white-hot - he begins to emit X-rays, recycling 10% of its total mass into pure energy. For comparison, fusion energy warheads processed in only 5% of its mass. You are appreciated? Throw something into the black hole, and you get to 2 times more power than a thermonuclear explosion.

02. They arrange explosions of galactic magnitude Black holes create the most powerful gravitational acceleration, and they are also the heaviest objects of our universe. Push the other one is equivalent to if you tried to hack the computer of the creator, although in our galaxy is a collision has occurred above two cosmic explosions ever growing bubbles of high-energy particles. How big they are? Well, here's this streak of dust between - our Milky Way galaxy, and the diameter of each of the bubbles - 25 000 light-years. Now they cover half of the visible sky, and started to grow, apparently millions of years ago. These images are specially made color - really pink on them noted gamma radiation. Scientists suggest that these bubbles arose when an unknown dwarf galaxy to the Milky Way dove and its central black hole is lost to our outright, though done in our galaxy cases, like a bull in a china shop.

03. There are millions the brightest black holes with an active nucleus are called quasars. They are not only the brightest objects in their galaxies - they are brighter than all other stars in them together. Lighthouses indicate sailor’s places from which it is better to stay away, but they also represent the key point for navigation. So black holes are excellent markers that allow us to build maps of the universe. Taking a black hole for the most horrible space monsters, people believe their rarity. And for good reason: in almost every galaxy there is a supermassive black hole. 2.5 Million - that's the number of active black holes absorbing substance detected infrared telescope WISE. They just did surround us.

04. They constantly produce antimatter the universe is constantly creates particle-antiparticle pairs, which are springing up immediately annihilate each other, producing the emission of gamma radiation, and do it so quickly that the Heisenberg uncertainty principle does not even have time to act. But if the virtual particle-antiparticle pair reaches the event horizon, one of them pulled into the black hole, while the other is free. All this would be an excellent text psychedelic song if it were not described by one of the smartest people on the planet - Stephen Hawking. Since then, what particle "escapes" from the black hole is determined by chance, the so-called Hawking radiation suggests that over the event horizon is a mixture of particle-antiparticle in the proportion of 50 to 50 in a continuous stream of self-annihilation.

05. They may explode Even black holes have to pay for breaking all the rules of our universe - the law of conservation of energy applies to them. However, we must make a reservation: a large black hole at all uneasy, hawking radiation takes too insignificant part of their mass. But for small holes are a disaster - they emit more energy than they absorb. And then the black hole explodes. But do not worry - if the hole is so small to explode, it is almost unable to break anything in the process.

06. They shoot "death rays" Black holes are voracious as Pac man, and if they are as smooth out our universe from the rest, we just have to hope that the creator came up with the next level. But it is so well known, and that's what you barely know, black holes can shoot high-energy beams of intergalactic proportions. When the black hole swallows matter, revolving around its equator, the poles emit space plasma jets, called jets, at a velocity close to the speed of light in the picture galaxy 3S321. The black hole in its center emits a powerful jet in the direction of a neighboring galaxy, bombarding her X-rays, gamma rays and streams of relativistic particles at a distance of 20,000 light years. This black hole, scientists NASA (and these guys even the death of the Universe usually speaks quietly) dubbed the "Death Star".

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